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The timeless works of Manik Bandopadhyay: a mirror for our weaknesses

Manik Bandopadhyay’s literary journey, though tragically cut short by his untimely death at the age of 48, showed the hallmarks of a writer who had achieved full creative maturity. From the age of 20 to 48, his prolific writing spanned the entire arc of a writer’s literary life: the exuberant morning of youthful genius, the matured afternoon of artistic mastery, and the contemplative evening shades of philosophical profundity.

While his contemporaries like Bibhutibhushan and Tarashankar Bandopadhyay enjoyed greater popularity, Manik carved out a niche among literary connoisseurs and critical readers right from his debut works. His writing heralded the arrival of a surprisingly original voice and vision that observed humanity and society from a very distinct perspective.

Manik’s innate style defied established conventions and exposed the flaws, paradoxes and hypocrisies that exist with surgical detachment in every sphere of life. His unwavering, almost clinical gaze gave enormous depth to his portraits of relationships, social divisions and the countless shades of human experience – whether love, lust, oppression or dehumanization. It was this radical newness of perspective that forced the literary elite to pay attention to the young child prodigy.

From his first novel “Dibaratrir Kabya” (Poetry of the Day and the Night), written in 1929 at the young age of 21, but later published in 1935, Manik subverted the existing norms of Bengali prose. Eschewing conventional storylines and character development, he seemed to reinvent language itself to dissect the human psyche and relationships from an “inverted, skewed perspective” hitherto unseen. Love was no longer a romantic concept, but deconstructed into obsession, jealousy, hatred and unconscious desires. No questions were answered, just more uncomfortable truths unraveled.

Although “Janani” (The Mother), his debut novel, published the same year, differs in subject matter from “Dibaratrir Kabya,” Manik’s distinct authorial voice and approach remain consistent. The multifaceted manifestations of the maternal essence of a housewife named Shyama are the subject of this psychological novel. The author does not portray the character of the mother with heavenly or divine grandeur. Instead, he presents a mother’s story through the mirror of reality. It would be a mistake to simply call it a novel; rather, it is a poignant piece of the eternal cycle of human life since prehistoric times. The novel deftly portrays a young woman’s journey to motherhood, conflicts between husband and wife, the tug-of-war in relationships, mental conflicts, financial struggles, selfish and selfless relationships, the enigmatic nature of human character, and the defeat of dreams against the harsh reality. If we look around, we will find at least one Shyama in our area.

Published in 1941, “Ahingsa” is a controversial novel that sparked debates and criticism after its publication. Set in an ashram on the banks of the Radhai River, the novel explores themes of religious hypocrisy, repressed desires, greed and sexual perversion cloaked in the guise of spirituality. While some critics interpreted the novel as a criticism of Mahatma Gandhi’s nonviolent movement, Manik clarified that “Ahingsa” is not a political novel, but rather a psychological exploration of the prevailing hypocrisy in the society. Through his down-to-earth perspective, Manik unmasks the true nature of the unhealthy and sick aspects of religious institutions and their leaders. The novel can be analyzed through the lens of Freudian psychoanalytic theory, examining the characters’ relationships and desires while also incorporating a Marxist perspective to explain the unrest and riots caused by class differences.

Published in 1945, “Darpan” (Mirror) is one of Manik Bandopadhyay’s most important political novels. It is written from a Marxist consciousness and presents an authentic picture of an exploited society. The novel acts as a mirror, reflecting the class-divided society, the uprising of oppressed villagers against the oppressive rich, and the lives of the impoverished and underprivileged. Through “Darpan,” Manik unites the peasant and labor movements, effectively demonstrating how a bond between the urban working class and rural peasant society can form a complete movement. Although the establishment of a socialist society is not explicitly shown, the novel lays the seeds for such a social system.

“Nagpash” is one of Manik Bandopadhyay’s later novels, published towards the end of his life. The title, derived from a mythical weapon mentioned in the Puranas, aptly reflects the novel’s theme: the unbreakable ties that bind individuals to society and relationships, regardless of their circumstances. The novel portrays the lives of characters like Naren, Nandan, Madhab and Dinanath, who are tired and affected by poverty. It offers a harsh portrayal of reality and explores themes such as economic crises, strained relationships, the artificiality of middle-class life and the ongoing battle between self-loathing and self-respect. Through his portrayal of middle and lower middle class urban characters, he subverts stereotypes and presents a nuanced portrayal of their thoughts, emotions and actions, reflecting the struggles of the modern urban working class in contemporary society.

Using his exceptional ability to express profound insights through simple words and sentences, Manik Bandopadhyay invites readers to reflect on different views on life, highlighting the inescapable nature of social and relational bonds, even if one feels unable to bear it.

This unflinching examination of human psychology in all its darkness and depth became a hallmark of Manik’s oeuvre. Whether portraying strained family ties in “Janani”, social unrest in the political novel “Darpan”, religious hypocrisy in “Ahingsa” or the travails of the urban working class in “Nagpash”, he offered an uncompromising perspective rarely found in Bengali literature.

Yet Manik was not merely an explorer of the dirty. His unwavering critical eye came from a deep empathy for the oppressed masses. After officially joining the communist movement in 1944, his novels advocated uniting the struggle of peasants and workers against exploitation. Works like “Padma Nadir Majhi” (Skippers of the Padma) have authentically captured the lives of impoverished villagers and slum dwellers. However, it would be far too simplistic to reduce him to a particular ‘ism’.

Manik’s true strength lay in his independent philosophical vision, untainted by dogma or ideological blinders. He questioned every societal norm and status quo, but offered no ultimate answers, but simply held up a mirror to the complexities of life. This radical objectivity and penetrating insight into the entire spectrum of humanity – from its greatest glories to its darkest depravities – lend his works a surprising relevance even today.

As we celebrate the 116th birth anniversary of Manik Bandopadhyay today, his ruthless literary vision serves as a powerful reminder in our era of rising social inequality and resurgent reactionary forces.

Just as his fearless writing withstood the limitations of time and space, Manik’s radical humanism breaks through barriers of language, culture and geography to reveal searing truths about our shared human existence. His novels shake us out of complacency and force us to confront the countless injustices, hypocrisies, and dehumanizing forces festering within modern civilization—and more importantly, within our own psyches. And that is why this uncompromising bard of the Bengali Renaissance remains urgently relevant even in the 21st century – for he exposes our deepest weaknesses.


Mahiya Tabassum is a writer and sub-editor at The Daily Star. She can be reached at [email protected].


The opinions expressed in this article are those of the author.


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