A call for urgent action – emerging Kashmir


Often called the ‘paradise on earth’, Kashmir is known for its breathtaking landscapes, majestic mountains and serene lakes. Among the natural treasures, the wetlands stand out as vital ecosystems that not only enhance the beauty of the region but also play a crucial role in maintaining the ecological balance. However, these wetlands, including the once glorious Hokarsar Wetland, are facing serious degradation due to human activities and lack of proper management. This article discusses the current condition of Kashmir’s wetlands, the reasons behind their degradation and the urgent need for comprehensive conservation efforts.

The importance of wetlands

Wetlands are unique ecosystems characterized by water-saturated soils, distinct vegetation and diverse wildlife. In Kashmir, wetlands provide numerous ecological benefits:

  • Biodiversity Hotspots: Wetlands are home to a wide variety of plant and animal species, including several migratory birds that travel thousands of miles to breed and feed in these habitats.
  • Flood control: Wetlands act as natural sponges, absorbing excess water during heavy rains and reducing the risk of flooding.
  • Water purification: They filter pollutants from the water, improving water quality.
  • Climate regulation: Wetlands store and help mitigate significant amounts of carbon.

The decline of Kashmir’s wetlands

Despite their ecological significance, Kashmir’s wetlands are rapidly deteriorating. The main factors contributing to their decline include:

  • Urbanization and Encroachment: Rapid urban expansion and illegal encroachment have led to the shrinking of wetland areas. Housing developments, road construction and other infrastructure projects often encroach on the boundaries of wetlands, reducing their size and capacity.
  • Pollution: Industrial discharges, agricultural runoff and untreated sewage have polluted many wetlands, disrupting the delicate ecological balance and harming wildlife.
  • Lack of proper management: Despite significant investments aimed at preserving wetlands, there is little evidence of effective implementation on the ground. Bureaucratic inefficiency and mismanagement have hampered progress, leaving wetlands neglected.
  • Climate change: Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns due to climate change have also affected wetland ecosystems, altering water levels and affecting biodiversity.

Case study: Hokarsar wetland

Hokarsar Wetland, often hailed as the “Queen of Wetlands” in Kashmir, is an example of the dire state of wetlands in the region. Once a thriving habitat for countless migratory birds, Hokarsar is now on the verge of collapse.

Current state

Today, Hokarsar presents a bleak picture. The wetland is choked with silt and invasive plant species have taken over large areas. A dredging machine, purchased to clear the wetland, lies idle, symbolizing the lack of results in conservation efforts. Despite substantial investment, little has been seen in terms of effective habitat restoration or pollution control.

Impact on wildlife

The degradation of Hokarsar has had serious consequences for the bird population. Migratory birds that once flocked to this wetland now find it inhospitable. Shrinking habitat and poor water quality have reduced the availability of food and nesting sites, leading to a decline in bird numbers.

Government initiatives and shortcomings

Over the years, several government initiatives have aimed to revive Kashmir’s wetlands. These include:

  • Financial Investments: Significant funds have been allocated for wetland restoration projects aimed at dredging silt, removing invasive species and improving water quality.
  • Policy framework: Policies and regulations are formulated to protect wetlands from degradation and pollution.
  • Awareness Campaigns: Efforts have been made to raise awareness among local communities about the importance of wetlands and the need for their conservation.

Despite these efforts, the results are disappointing. The main shortcomings include:

  • Shortcomings in implementation: There is a significant gap between policy formulation and implementation. Bureaucratic delays and a lack of coordination between agencies have stalled progress.
  • Misuse of Funds and Mismanagement: Cases of misuse of funds and mismanagement have resulted in funds being diverted from actual conservation efforts. Resources intended for wetland restoration are often misused, leaving projects incomplete.
  • Lack of community involvement: Effective conservation requires active participation of local communities. However, many initiatives have failed to engage local residents in a meaningful way, leading to limited community support.

The way forward: comprehensive conservation strategies

To prevent the complete loss of Kashmir’s wetlands, a multi-pronged approach is needed. Key strategies include:

  • Strengthening legal frameworks: Robust legal protections must be enforced to prevent infringement and pollution. This includes strict penalties for violators and regular monitoring of wetlands.
  • Effective use of funds: Transparent and accountable mechanisms should be put in place to ensure that funds allocated for wetland conservation are used effectively. this includes regular audits and disclosure of expenses.
  • Community involvement: Local communities should be actively involved in conservation efforts. This can be achieved through awareness campaigns, capacity building programs and encouraging community-led initiatives.
  • Scientific research and monitoring: Continued scientific research and monitoring are essential to understanding wetland health and the impact of conservation measures. Data-driven approaches can help devise effective strategies for recovery.
  • Climate Adaptation Strategies: Wetland conservation efforts must include climate adaptation strategies to address the impacts of climate change. this includes measures to maintain water levels, protect against extreme weather events and preserve biodiversity.
  • Sustainable Tourism: Promoting sustainable tourism can generate revenue for conservation efforts while raising awareness about the importance of wetlands. Environmentally friendly tourism practices should be encouraged to minimize environmental impact.


Kashmir’s wetlands are priceless ecological treasures that need urgent and sustained conservation efforts. The current state of neglect, exemplified by the degradation of the Hokarsar Wetland, underlines the urgent need for action. Effective management, community involvement and transparent use of funds are critical to reverse the decline of these vital ecosystems. With joint efforts, it is possible to restore the health of Kashmir’s wetlands and ensure that they continue to support biodiversity, reduce flooding, purify water and enhance the region’s natural beauty for generations to come.

(The author is a social activist, political analyst and national TV debater and can be reached via email @(email protected))